If you are a fast reader and have a good grasp of grammar and language then editing may be a good freelance role for you. Editing is a great way to quickly make money online, and there are always editing jobs available on the freelance job sites. Editor’s usually get paid per word, so the faster you can check through work the more money you will make per hour.
As long as there is still the written word, there will always be editors. Freelance editing and proofreading not only pays a decent hourly wage, it also gives you the chance to read about potentially interesting topics too. What's more, pursuing freelance writing & editing as a business idea can afford you a lifestyle that lets you travel the world as a digital nomad. You can find lots of job postings from companies and individuals in need of writing, proofreading, and editing services on Upwork, which makes this a high-demand opportunity to make money online.
Job well done, Satrap. The first thing I look for in a site like this are signs that the author is being paid to hype the companies. It’s very tough to find good information that isn’t stricken with bias. There were a couple of times during the article where I actually got excited thinking, ‘Hey, I could do that. I’d actually LOVE to do that.” That being said, I can’t help noticing that you refer to all of it as “extra” or “supplemental”income. Are you saying that with all of these options, sticking to one’s regular “day job” is required? In your experience, if someone really commits to doing this, is it possible to earn a decent living? Cubicles suck.

Double check yourself, before you double wreck yourself. Make sure everything you send to a company, whether a résumé, an email or a portfolio, is good to go. Double check your grammar and wording, and for God’s sake use spell check! This is especially important when it comes to the company’s name. Don’t spell their name wrong and be sure to type it how they type it (e.g. Problogger, not Pro Blogger).
But you should understand that you won’t become instantly rich by selling product. This type of business is highly competitive because there are many other people into it. How to make money online in India can be simply answered by following these hacks to gain success in the field: through affiliate marketing, you need to understand the market, know how products are promoted, and understand how it works.
Robert said he did an average of 4-6 of these gigs per year for a while depending on his schedule and the work involved. The best part is, he charged a flat rate that usually worked out to around $100 per hour. And remember, this was pay he was earning to advise people on the best ways to use social media tools like Facebook and Pinterest to grow their brands.
What do you create? Before you answer, “nothing,” think about this: If you are serious about making money online, one of the best ways to do so is by selling tangible and non-tangible products. These can be actual items that you send in the mail, digital products that you send via email, videos, a podcast, or even a blog post. Check out these ideas on how to make money online for teens by creating products and selling them.
Français: se faire de l'argent en ligne, Italiano: Guadagnare Online, Español: ganar dinero en Internet, Português: Ganhar Dinheiro Online, Deutsch: Online Geld verdienen, Русский: заработать в интернете, 中文: 在网上赚钱, Bahasa Indonesia: Menghasilkan Uang Secara Online, Čeština: Jak vydělávat peníze online, Nederlands: Online geld verdienen, العربية: كسب المال بواسطة العمل عبر الإنترنت, Tiếng Việt: Kiếm tiền Trực tuyến, हिन्दी: ऑनलाइन पैसे कमाएँ, 한국어: 온라인으로 돈 버는 법, ไทย: หาเงินออนไลน์, Türkçe: İnternet'ten Nasıl Para Kazanılır, 日本語: オンライン上でお金を稼ぐ
Rather than making money through subscriptions, YouTube channels are based on a traditional advertising system. Meaning the more viewers you get, the more you make. Once you’re approved for the YouTube Partner Program and can start including ads on your videos, with every 1,000 views, you will make approximately $2-$4. Which might not seem like a lot, but if you have 100 videos with 5,000 views a month each, that would be $1,000–$2,000 already. Just imagine if your videos start hitting millions of views!

To test these websites, you’ll be asked to visit the site in question and record your reactions and thoughts as you go through it. To get started making extra money online by testing websites, sign up for some of the most popular services like UserTesting.com, Userlytics, TryMyUI, Userfeel, TestingTime (for people outside the U.S), or Side Income Jobs.


Slicethepie: Similar to MusicXRay, Slicethepie pays users to write reviews. While the company started out in the music industry it now provides reviews on fashion, mobile phone accessories, and other products. The company doesn’t disclose how much it pays per review but notes that there are incentives to write good reviews. Find more information here: Slicethepie.
Very true great article wanted to ask you if I could reach out to you through email about a great way to save money and make money off bills you already pay I am trying to network and help people out and reach out to people who are like minded so I don’t waste any time for anyone look forward to hearing from you. You can reach me at Fsheehy10@gmail.com and we can speak further thanks again.
How many email newsletters are you bombarded with every single day? There’s a reason for that. Marketing to an actively interested group of email subscribers is one of the best ways to make money online. There have even been million-dollar businesses built from simple email newsletters like TheSkimm, or Mister Spoils. Each newsletter targets a specific type of user with interesting, daily content, while also partnering with relevant companies and affiliates to bring in extra money. If this seems daunting, it’s not. Tools like MailChimp, Seva (formerly ConvertKit), AWeber, and ActiveCampaign, make it easier than ever to get started with email marketing.
This is a slightly different opportunity from the others listed, but a very real opportunity none the less! My 13 year old step-daughter has been doing this since year & loves it! Not only has she made quite a bit considering the little time she has to dedicate to it, but is already learning so many important job/career related skills. A couple important things to consider….

The Field Agent app is available on Android and Apple devices. You only need to look for tasks within your area, do the research, submit the details of your findings and wait for your money. These tasks are simple and involve visiting stores and checking on issues such as display compliance, demos, and shelf availability. Each job may give you earnings between $3 to $12.
Now, I know what you’re thinking. Most of the software and apps you use on a regular basis are made by massive companies or established development studios. Well, yes. But many successful apps, particularly those in the Apple and Google stores, are created and marketed by individuals and small businesses. In fact, independent developers made $20 billion in the App Store in 2016 alone.
I first learned about you when I downloaded your free e-book, How to Make Money – BLOGGING, via Amazon Kindle. It was a sure one-sitting kind of book but is very meaty. I got all the wonderful ideas from your book and finally decided to visit your website to harvest some more inspiration. I am so glad my path was directed here because I also have just started my incognito blog.
Drop shipping is another great ‘hands-off’ way to sell products. Firstly you will need to find businesses that sell products in your niche that offer a drop shipping service. Then you will need to create a website promoting and selling the products. When you make a sale, you take the payment on your site and then the manufacturer ships the goods to the buyer. The profit comes from charging a higher rate than the manufacturer, and if you are selling a high number of products this can quickly add up to a healthy revenue.
You need to combine ad copy, graphics, and a link effectively on paid services like Google AdSense in paid advertising while placing links and advertisements on free websites like Craigslist or US Free Ads in the free advertisement method. Payment methods of both of them are PPC, that is earning money regardless of whether a reader buys the product or not.
There are times when many of us find ourselves in a bind and we need money today, even if it's just a couple of bucks. Fortunately, there are some websites you can use to earn fast cash online. I'm not going to lie to you, many of them are just extra cash online and will never replace your income. Regardless, they can save you in a pinch when you need it most if you use them regularly and allow the money to build up.
I hired David from Web Geek 4 Hire to upgrade my blogs and install new WordPress plugins. He charges $5 to upgrade a plugin…great for him, since most plugins only take a few minutes to upgrade, and great for me, since if anything breaks, David gets to clean up the mess! You can make this a full time position; there is a ton of demand for these services. Find customers by contacting bloggers directly. Get references from bloggers who understand the value of outsourcing these tasks.
For article marketing, you need to have a higher ranking in search engine results to be a credible source. There are many article submission websites like Ezine Articles. As a marketer, you submit your article and affiliate marketers republish your article. The marketer who published the original article gradually earns higher search engine rankings. For email marketing, affiliate marketers embed an email subscription option for website visitors.

A rental club can work well for loads of things. For boys, renting computer games that you have lying around at home is a good idea. For girls, if you’ve got some nice things in your wardrobe that you don’t mind lending out, you could rent items out at the weekend so that people can wear them to parties. In this case, some sort of guarantee system should be put in place in case the clothes get ripped or stained, however, with the DVDs their value isn’t so much that this should be necessary. If a DVD is mistreated you can simply deny the member who broke it any more rentals.

Well, what you do depends partly on what you have the skills to do. Obviously you can run a computer, but online jobs aren’t the only ones out there. You could also clean houses, paint, wash cars, babysit, walk dogs, or any other things someone needs help with and is willing to pay you to do. The thing to do is, keep an open mind and don’t hesitate to ask others if they need help. Then, use your money wisely. Don’t just spend it all. Save and invest some too.
Find work. When you first start out, you may have to accept work writing about a topic you don’t find all that interesting. You must keep an open mind and be willing to accept work that may not be in your desired field. However, as you continue to write, you not only learn about more topics, but you also build your reputation. With time, you can be choosier about assignments you want to accept.[19]

Many big businesses are looking for social media influencers to become long-term ambassadors for their brand. This would involve you working closely with one particular band, and promoting their clothes, products, and services. You may also be restricted from promoting other brands, so check out the small print before agreeing to any long-term agreements.
If you have a good idea for an app, and the skills to create it, then producing your own premium app can be profitable. However, with so many free apps available, it may be hard to convince people to pay. If you want to go down the premium app route, consider having a basic free version to encourage people to download the app in the first place. You can then provide the option of upgrading to a premium plan once users realize how useful the app is.
If you have previous experience as a computer programmer, or have skills in this field, then there is plenty of work you can pick up as a freelancer. If lack of confidence is holding you back, then Free Code Camp is an excellent way to get your foot in the coding door. This organization provides free courses where you will build real-life apps and programs, giving you experience and plenty to add to your CV.
I spent much of my time curating quality content and promoting it on social media. Honestly, I still spend a lot of time doing those tough tasks, but now I’ve built a strong foundation and the sales are coming in consistently. These days, I make around $500 in passive affiliate sales each month, in addition to my other blog revenue! I can’t complain. The long haul was worth it.

I hardly ever try to commutate with other affiliate marketers but it’s something about your site that is very interesting. Maybe it’s because your black who knows. Anyway I’ve known about affiliate marketing for 10 yrs. Never made over 100 bucks a month doing but for the live of the game I’m building a an affiliate blog promoting Amazon kitchen products. I’m very confident in my skills and by the end of 2018 I plan to have my monthly income at 2000 or better. Enjoying reading your site.. Keep up the awesome work. Your writing skills are extremely sharp.
To have your own store, a parent or guardian has to manage your Etsy account, send a statement of permission to trust@etsy.com and provide a credit card or PayPal account to handle all payments. You will also have to disclose your status as a minor in your profile’s “about” section. Check out the full list of requirements for minors selling on Etsy.
To sell on eBay, you’ll need permission to use your mom’s or dad’s account. When you add a listing, you either set the price or let people place bids. For auction-style listings, you can set a starting price to ensure you turn a profit. If you’re selling something that’s not common on the site, an auction-style listing is usually the best option. Otherwise, fixed-price listings are the way to go.
If you are a Walmart shopper, then use the Savings Catcher on the Walmart app. When you are done with your purchase, scan your receipt and the app will go out over the next several days and search competitor pricing for your products. If they find that someone offered that item for less, you will get a rebate for the difference in the form of a Walmart gift card (redeemable directly from the app.
Launch a Blog or Podcast: Similiar to creating YouTube videos, a successful blog or podcast can provide a source of income through advertising, affiliate marketing, sponsorships and as a means to sell other products such as e-books. Starting a blog is easy with WordPress.org and thousands of themes, or designs, to choose from. The article, How to Start a Blog Today is a good general guide. And How to Start a Podcast: Pat’s Complete Step-by-Step Podcasting Tutorial is an in-depth overview of how Pat Flynn began his successful Smart Passive Income podcast series.

Fixing computer viruses and other problems: If you have a knack for fixing computer problems, there’s certainly a market for your skill. Even fairly tech-savvy people run into issues with their computers that they just can’t figure out. Advertising your proven skill and ability will be key to your success. Word-of-mouth advertising could likely be your best advertisement so it’s important to make sure clients are happy and satisfied enough to recommend your services to others.


Create custom alerts on your phone for affiliate sales – if you use GMail, go to your settings and create a filter so all emails with “SiteGround Affiliate Sale Generated” in the subject line go into their own folder (tweak the subject line to match whatever email notification your affiliate sends you). Then setup a custom alert on your phone using the GMail app so anytime you generate a sale, you get a custom alert (here’s a tutorial for Android and here’s one for Apple). I have different notifications for SiteGround, StudioPress Themes, etc. Makes your day better :)
I need to be more regular in my donating / giving so I wanted to tie a specific dollar amount that I’m looking to accomplish. I know it’s kind of odd that I’m including this goal in a blog post as most people are pretty private about what they give to charity, but it’s on my white board so I guess it’s on the blog post lol. Throughout this year I will occasionally release products or software and state in the sales material that (for example) the first $5,000 purchased worth of this software will be going directly to Charity Water. Continuing with charity water as an example, after I would reach that sales figure I’d then make a donation to a Charity Water campaign as well just to prove that I was actually making the donations. You’d have to be pretty evil to say you were going to donate money and not actually do it though.

i hate when people bullsh*t you (me), so i wont be a di*k. CashCrate is free to sign up and they have offers and surveys that range from $(.)50 thats fifty cents to 4 dollars and they also have offers that require a credit card, but you can earn up to 40 dollars for one survey. this survey that im talking about is one for a credit card. you register for one using valid info and your credit card number (probally so they know you have a bank account ) and if you qualified you get the credit card and 40 dollars for doing the offer through CashCrate.
Under no circumstances should any information from this blog be used as replacement for professional financial advice. DollarSprout.com is owned by VTX Capital, LLC and neither are licensed by or affiliated with any third-party marks on this website and third parties do not endorse, authorize, or sponsor our content except where clearly disclosed. DollarSprout.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.

Great article, I have tried a few over the years. I had a side business cleaning offices for years. It did great, but I hated never being able to take more than 3-4 days vacation, so I eventually gave up. I tried MTurk, but if you multiplied my earnings on an hourly basis, it was a little over $6/hr. My blog is much worse, probably less than $0.25/hr.
I first learned about you when I downloaded your free e-book, How to Make Money – BLOGGING, via Amazon Kindle. It was a sure one-sitting kind of book but is very meaty. I got all the wonderful ideas from your book and finally decided to visit your website to harvest some more inspiration. I am so glad my path was directed here because I also have just started my incognito blog.
My 10-year-old son brought home a book from our park’s free library box. It was a biology textbook – teachers edition. He said it looked interesting and hey, it was free (having no idea you could sell it). I scanned it in my Amazon seller app and realized it was worth around $150. He was so excited. We listed it for sale for $130 and it sold! Going to tell him, he just made $130!
Do household cleaning chores. Since you're a part of the family, you should already be pitching in to the keep the household in shape, but you can ask your parents to take on additional responsibilities for a reasonable fee. After all, chances are that your parents already have a lot of daily tasks and worries, so they would appreciate the help. You can negotiate your compensation by asking for half of what a professional cleaner would charge.You could also do other people's yardwork and get money.
Français: gagner de l'argent (pour adolescents), Italiano: Fare Soldi (per Adolescenti), Español: ganar dinero siendo adolescente, Deutsch: Als Jugendlicher Geld verdienen, Português: Fazer Dinheiro (para Adolescentes), Русский: подростку заработать деньги, 中文: 赚钱(青少年版), Čeština: Jak si vydělat peníze (pro teenagery), Bahasa Indonesia: Menghasilkan Uang Bagi Remaja, Nederlands: Geld verdienen (als tiener), العربية: ربح المراهقين للأموال, ไทย: หาเงิน (สำหรับวัยรุ่น), Tiếng Việt: Kiếm tiền (Dành cho Thiếu niên), 한국어: 십대 청소년이 돈 버는 방법, Türkçe: Nasıl Para Kazanılır (Gençler İçin)
After reading all the benefits of affiliate marketing if you think you will be rich over night by selling affiliate products online then you are wrong. Affiliate marketing is definitely an excellent way to make money online but it’s highly competitive too. In order to be successful in Affiliate marketing you need to know the market needs, learn how to promote products, what works and what doesn’t. The following are a few tricks on becoming successful in affiliate marketing that I have learnt over time.
What are dividend stocks? They are just like regular shares of stock, but with one exception: For every share of a dividend stock that you own, you are paid a small portion of the company’s earnings. Basically, you get paid just for owning the stock! If you are looking to get started with dividend investing, check out Ally Invest (which is included on our list of best investment apps).
Enjoy making silly videos? Even short, silly videos can sell products online. Find an product worth promoting that has an affiliate program, then target your video toward potential customers of that product. In your video summary on YouTube, place your affiliate link for the product, and after the video, do a 30-second still frame showing a short URL where people can buy the product. If your video is funny, informative, or useful, you may sell some products. Big tip: Try to promote a product that makes you a fair amount of money for each sale, but doesn’t cost a whole lot for the potential customer. You can find products on Commission Junction, for one.
If there is a hotel near to where you live, you could make money cleaning rooms at the weekends. A chambermaid is responsible for changing sheets, picking up and delivering laundry to the linen room, cleaning the rooms and bathrooms and sometimes preparing and serving in-room breakfast. It’s not great money and the work can be hard, but it’s usually just a morning job leaving you the rest of the day free to make more money.
Earning by comments will require you to have your own Blogs and Websites. You will then share these dedicated domains (Owned by You) in the comment window. If an option to add your URL or website is not available, then you do not include links. You contact the site support first and get permission to share your URL. Oh, and NEVER share affiliate links in comments.
If re-skinning sounds like something you want to try, I would first recommend looking at Chupamobile. Chupamobile is a marketplace to buy app templates. They usually cost between $50 and $250. However, once you buy a template once, you can re-skin it an unlimited amount of times! After you decided on your first template, you’re going to need to re-skin the app. I’ve found that simplicity is the best when re-skinning apps. I typically just change the icon, colors, screenshots, text, and backgrounds of the app. I wouldn’t try to add features because this is time consuming and the return isn’t usually that great. After completing the re-skin, you’re almost finished with your first app! Now you just have to sell it on Flippa, a marketplace for buying and selling apps and websites.
Once you’re financially stable, I hope you start giving back. It feels good and people like the idea of supporting a good cause (they will be more likely to click your affiliate link in your disclaimer). This also means you don’t have to use as many links in your content and risk getting a penalized. Last year I donated $3,000 to Red Cross At Hurricane Harvey.
Freelancing has always been a popular way to earn money online and the Internet has a plethora of options. There are several websites offering freelance tasks for people with varying skills. All you need to do is to create your account, browse through the listings, and apply for the task that suits you. Some websites may even require you to create a personal listing with the details of your skillset, so that interested clients can contact you directly. Outfiverr.com, upwork.com, freelancer.com, and worknhire.com are some websites that provide freelance jobs. You can earn anywhere between $5 and $100 through these websites.
Joined OpinionOutpost I answer surveys and win prizes. This most trusted voice in survey industry also gives out $10,000 every month to its participants. Two lucky winners get $1,000 each, rest of the prize money is distributed among other active members. your name may never come up, but by just being part of Neilson world, which shapes tomorrow’s industries, is a great sense of accomplishment.
Can you make money with affiliate marketing? The short answer is yes, affiliate programs can earn a extra money and even a full-time income from home. The long answer is a little more complicated. Like any home income venture, success comes not so much from what you choose to do to make money, but whether or not you do what needs to be done correctly and consistently.
Ibotta is an app that pays you back for things you buy at the grocery store. The reason I'm listing it here is because when you cash out, the money goes instantly (or almost instantly) to Paypal. I've never had to wait longer than five minutes to get my money from Ibotta! You can also earn from referrals there, too. However, you must have at least $20 in your account to cash out. Still, cashing out every week isn't unrealistic with consistent use.

Don't know how to code? No worries. Ethan Duggan, a 12-year-old from Las Vegas, took an online coding class for a few months in between the 5th and 6th grade. He ended up developing an app called Lazy Husband and is now in the process of learning about pricing, profitability, and other real-life business topics that are great to learn at a young age. Check out Codeacademy to learn more.


Another company that hires teenagers is Humanatic. When a company calls a person, there is sometimes a recording that says something along the lines of, “this call may be monitored for quality control purposes.” Employees of Humanatic are the ones listening to and monitoring the calls. They fill out an analysis report and can make up to $4.50 per hour. Is it a lot of money? No, but it might be worth it if you're just hanging around online!

If you’re interested in affiliate marketing, you generally need to put a little thought into what types of products you’d like to feature. Having a niche or some kind of focus will help get eager buyers to your site much quicker than simply advertising anything under the sun. Next, purchase a domain name and website hosting, and then get your website up and running.

E-books represent about 20 percent of all book sales in the U.S. The good news is you don’t have to be a publisher with deep pockets to get in on the action. As a solo internet entrepreneur, you can sell ebooks directly from your own website. You can sell your own works or sell a public domain work. Simply upload it to your website (or seller account on Amazon) and start publicizing it on your social media platforms, on your email list, your blog, website, etc.

While Etsy is fantastic for handmade goods that you’ve already created, if you’ve got killer designs that would look good on phone cases, t-shirts, or even wall hangings, pillows, and duvets, you can sell them on Society6 without paying anything to start. Society6 lets artists upload their designs and create their own shops where they choose what products their designs can be used on. That means one design can be used to make a whole range of awesome products that are printed and shipped on demand whenever someone buys from you. With top creators making thousands every month just from selling their designs.


If you have an eye for design and some experience of creating websites, then you could offer your services as a freelance web designer. You will need to create your own stylish website, and have a few other projects that you can show potential clients to demonstrate your skills. You will also need to initially spend time emailing businesses to promote your services and find work.

Français: gagner de l'argent (pour adolescents), Italiano: Fare Soldi (per Adolescenti), Español: ganar dinero siendo adolescente, Deutsch: Als Jugendlicher Geld verdienen, Português: Fazer Dinheiro (para Adolescentes), Русский: подростку заработать деньги, 中文: 赚钱(青少年版), Čeština: Jak si vydělat peníze (pro teenagery), Bahasa Indonesia: Menghasilkan Uang Bagi Remaja, Nederlands: Geld verdienen (als tiener), العربية: ربح المراهقين للأموال, ไทย: หาเงิน (สำหรับวัยรุ่น), Tiếng Việt: Kiếm tiền (Dành cho Thiếu niên), 한국어: 십대 청소년이 돈 버는 방법, Türkçe: Nasıl Para Kazanılır (Gençler İçin)
these are certainly well known ways of making money with affiliate marketing…the best example i can give is rahul kuntala of learnblogtips.com, he has created an ebook and also has a landing page as you suggested! i would also specify bharat mandava of wpsquare.com, who earns most of his income through affiliate marketing!! thx fr the article jafar :)
11. Petsitting – this one doesn't require much explanation. You have a few options. You can offer occasional sitting services to those going on vacation or establish a steady clientele by offering dog walking services. If you are really wanting to ramp up your service package, you can even throw in a little lawn cleanup. A lot of pet owners are more than willing to pay for dooty duty these days.
You don’t necessarily need a website to display Adsense ads. There are forums and Q&A websites that will allow you to put up your own Adsense ads. This can be risky because Google has strict terms of service and will ban your Adsense account for even the smallest infraction. This risk can be reduced on your own site because you’re in 100% control. But on someone else’s site you have less control.
If you search Google for Helium and Associated Content, there are a lot of unhappy people who are earning pennies or less providing content to these sites who are earning a lot of money from the ads placed on your article. Sadly there are a lot of sites like this out there. Let's be honest, in a literate society who is going to pay you to write a letter? Meanwhile the people who recommend these sources of income are usually paid to do so. What appears to be an energetic, unbiased recommendation is usually an attempt to win a referral fee. By all means search these sites carefully or you will spend all day working and will earn less than $20 per month.

It’s sometimes hard to comprehend just how much people love t-shirts. And with the right niche, marketing, and tools, you can create an online t-shirt business that makes you extra money online while you sleep. (Even Bloomberg and Forbes feature stories from entrepreneurs who've done just that.) Services like TeeSpring make it easier than ever to create a t-shirt drop-shipping business where they handle the sales, printing, and shipping, and you’re only responsible for design and marketing. For more tips, check out this simple guide to launching and marketing an online clothing store by my friends over at Selz.


The first follows the startup path we outlined above: You have a disruptive idea for an app or piece of software, you validate the idea with real customers, and then raise money to hire developers or a development studio to build, launch, and scale your software. If you’ve done everything right, your software will be accepted to the Apple and Google Stores and you’ll make money every time someone downloads it or pays for a premium feature.
Sign up for a reputable affiliate network: Aside from Amazon, there are dozens of large reputable affiliate networks, such as Share-A-Sale, Clickbank, and Skimlinks, that specialize in connecting you with merchants who are looking for affiliates to sell their products. They charge relatively low commission fees for the privilege of connecting you with merchants, and the merchants on these sites tend to offer much higher commission percentages or set dollar amount payouts.
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